Why we need Open, Hackable Materials now – An Interview with Catarina Mota

(Italian translation of the post follows here – La traduzione in italiano è disponibile qui)

Catarina a TED Global 2012

I had the opportunity to get in touch with  Catarina Mota recently, while I was helping my friends at openpPicus, to connect with the Open Source Hardware Association. She is, no doubt, amongst the most eminent representatives of the Hacking movement. To me, it’s extremely impressive though how one of the leaders of this revolution is coming right from outside the technological world and actually has a communication sciences and film college background. When I asked her to tell me a brief recap of her experience of hacking, she gave a really insightful and detailed story.

Catarina’s first contacts with electronics and programming was at ITP-NYU in 1998:

“ITP classes taught us how to get started, but most of the actual project development took place after class when students got together with both teachers and fellow students to figure out how to make things. At the time, this wasn’t called open source hardware, but schematics and code were freely shared amongst students and teachers”

This is what helped Catarina and others like her, who had had no training whatsoever in engineering nor programming, to learn and quickly start to make.

After graduating from ITP Catarina had to give up hardware since at the time there were no hackerspaces nor techshops, and most people in NYC and Lisbon don’t have a garage:

“In addition to the lack of physical space, another problem was access to components and materials. They could be bought of course, but it was hard for a single person to stock every electronic component and material she’d ever need. It was very frustrating to be working on a project, realize I didn’t have the right resistor and then have to wait several days for a single part to arrive in the mail so I could continue”

For a few years she turned to software and data and after years of looking, in 2008 she found a phd program in digital media. For four years now she has been researching the social impact of the convergence of open source hardware, digital fabrication tools and hackerspaces.

In 2009 Catarina decided to start an Hackerspace in Lisbon as she felt the need to work with others instead of on her own and she met two amazing people who enthusiastically joined the effort: Ricardo Lobo (from the Porto hackerspace) and Tiago Henriques. Instead of creating a completely separate organization the three joined efforts in Lobo’s non-profit organization and started altLab in Lisbon. A few months after that a third hackerspace joined the organization: xDA. The three now form the AZ Labs network. A year later she moved back to NYC and joined the hackerspace NYC Resistor (one of the oldest in the US).

The encounter with Kirsty Boyle, a robot artist that Catarina met at an exhibition in Madrid, inspired a collaboration on an installation that required a few different types of smart materials, such as muscle wire and photochromic paint:

“As soon as we began researching this, we realized two things: smart materials were extremely hard to obtain in small quantities, and the few that we could acquire came with no instructions whatsoever. So we had to proceed by trial and error. Being advocates of open source, we quickly realized that we had to share this information so others wouldn’t have to go through the same process and also in the hope of getting help to create a pool of public knowledge around materials. So we created openmaterials.org”

When asked about OSHWA, Catarina introduces the project as follows:

“In the early 2000s, open source hardware was just something people did. These pioneers were for the most part users/developers of open source software, so they found it natural to share the schematics and plans for their hardware as well.

In subsequent years the practice grew at an accelerated pace, with new projects appearing and expanding quickly. By early 2010, even though the community was highly networked and met in person at events such as Maker Faire, people began to realize that we needed to formalize things a bit more.”

Catarina’s Works

At the time, Ayah Bdeir – a Creative Commons fellow – was trying to get her company Littlebits off the ground. Wanting to share the information she was picking up, she organized a workshop at Eyebeam for open source hardware developers to discuss how to handle the legal side: “From this meeting emerged the first open source hardware definition, which was later refined with contributions from the international community. Also in early 2010, Alicia Gibb began planning the first Open Hardware Summit. She and Ayah joined forces soon after that and the very first OHS took place in September of that same year.”

At that point the movement had both a definition that allows to determine whether something is open source hardware or not, and an annual meeting place to discuss the progress and challenges of the movement. According to Catarina:

“It seemed that the next step would be to create a non-profit organization to host the summit, defend the definition, compile best practices (which exist but are not written in one single place), and educate the general public about open source hardware. Alicia bravely took on this task and began putting together all the documentation necessary.”

Catarina is now co-chairing the Open Hardware Summit 2012 and joined the board of directors. The Open Source Hardware Association (OSHWA) was officially incorporated in June and will include membership, leadership and activities across all countries interested in joining the effort.

“We’re still navigating the massive amount of paperwork a new organization requires, but some of our first projects are: organizing the 2012 Open Hardware Summit, the first open source hardware international survey and a  little surprise to be announced (hopefully) at the summit in September”

Here follow the open materials related questions we had the chance to dabate.

[Simone Cicero] What will be the implications of bringing the study of new materials out of the research centers: how much is the DIY world ready to create new materials and generate innovation? What kind of material do you foresee people will be inventing, hacking, modifying? and following what necessities, gaps? How opening materials will make them smarter?

[Catarina Mota] I believe that the implications of bringing materials out of research centers are very similar to what has already happened with hardware: we’ll see materials-hacking, new applications and possibly even new materials come out of it. It’s all about critical mass. Material scientists have the know-how and the tools, and they’re creating amazing new materials, but once you put that knowledge and those tools in the hands of a large number of people they will come up with things a smaller group probably wouldn’t have thought of.

We’re still taking the first steps towards open source materials and we don’t yet have critical mass. But our tools are getting more sophisticated and there’s increasingly more knowledge and experimentation out there. So while we’re not yet ready to create new materials and devise major innovations, we’re paving the way for that to happen.

I think we’ll start with two kinds of materials – in fact we already have:

  • Simpler smart materials such as conductive ink, which don’t require extensive chemistry knowledge nor expensive equipment. Earlier this year, Jordan Bunker from Pumping Station read a research paper from two materials scientists from UIUC and was able to reproduce their method for making conductive ink at his hackerspace. A couple months after that, Nick Vermeer from NYC Resistor, also based on a research paper by materials scientists, published his first successful experiment in creating a DIY conductive ink.
  • Materials for 3D printing: as 3D printers become more popular, more and more attention is being paid to the materials they use. We haven’t yet seen any major breakthroughs, but there are already a few projects focused on creating filament makers and recyclers, such as the Filabot. I expect that, in addition to experiments with ABS and PLA, we’ll also see some action in the development of UV-curable resins (which are expensive) as well as in materials for laser-cutting and milling.

The necessities and gaps these materials fill are access to better and cheaper materials for things we are already doing: creating circuits and fabricating objects.

As Eric von Hippel suggests, users know exactly what they want so they’re particularly well positioned to design and prototype it. What this means is that we’ll likely hack or create materials to do things only we know we need. So materials will become smarter in the sense that they’ll be better adapted to fit specific needs.

[Simone Cicero] Does it exist for open materials a real business opportunity to create companies and productive activities around a shared and collaborative research framework such as has happened for open source or open hardware so far?

[Catarina Mota] I believe so. As the open source hardware and maker movements expand, so does our need for materials with which to make things. And right now, most materials producers aren’t paying attention to this, they’re completely focused on supplying large manufacturing businesses and few make their products available in small enough quantities to be acquired by makers. So there are definitely untapped business opportunities here, specially in what concerns materials for digital fabrication.

[Simone Cicero] In evaluating the implications of decentralization, materials are central. In creating a new decentralized structure of production, what are the cross-implications between design and materials? On the one hand, design must seek new ways to create products and learn how to be materials invariant in some way – otherwise will be hard to collaborate globally on a real global library of “productibles” – on the other hand we have to invent materials that are open, hackable, versatile (to avoid harming the design and creation process too much).

[Catarina Mota] I don’t see this as problem as long as there is good documentation. The same way we now identify parts in BOMs, specifying the part number and linking to spec sheets, we can do something similar for materials. For example, there are several types of thermochromic paints now available which are activated at different temperatures, but as long as we have this information we can select the one we need. The same thing applies to other materials: if we publish recipes for a material and also include a clear explanation of the resulting properties, people will know which recipe to choose for their application. It’s really not that different from the way open source hardware works, it’s all about good documentation!

[Simone Cicero] In addition to the design world – that is always in advance on such innovations – which productive field you think it should develop an interest in open materials – even though it did not so far? Iin general, which are the application areas where we have the most need to create new materials?
Also what are the more important and interesting axes of innovation (eg sustainability, recycling, longevity, versatility) for materials?

[Catarina Mota] I think the area in which we currently have the most need for P2P materials research is digital fabrication. We now have access to the hardware itself so our need for cheaper and more sustainable materials is also increasing. This is urgent since we’re making more things than ever before and we need to start thinking of ways to recycle/reuse failed prints and leftovers.

Another area that has had some attention, but not enough, are biomaterials, some of which have existed for a long time. I’m thinking for example of cardboard, cork and bioplastic. I believe that a lot of the innovation waiting to happen will not be about creating new materials, but about finding new uses for traditional materials. I live in NYC and every week we put out tons of cardboard to be recycled. Recycling still requires a non-trivial consumption of energy. So every time I see these mounds of cardboard on the street I wonder if we can repurpose it locally to build furniture, bricks, planters, etc. Cork is also an amazing material: it’s renewable, sound/temperature insulating, and long lasting. Why don’t we use it more?

Another interesting aspect of this has to do with the longevity of materials. Some of the materials I stock tend to go bad after a while, specially during the summer when it gets very hot. My stock of magnetic paint, for example, was constantly drying up. Now that I created my own formula, I can just make whatever quantity I need when I need it. I also started stocking thermochromic pigments. That way I only mix them with the binder when I’m about to use it. And I can also make different types of paint from a single batch of pigments: acrylic, oil, screen printing, fabric, etc. So there is a lot less waste and much more flexibility.

[Simone Cicero] Often we appeal to the social implications of the Open & p2p revolution. Since this paradigm has gained visibility in time – because it regards production of hardware, tangible objects – and the Maker (and hackers) culture is actually getting everyday more traction; we finally started to question the digital, decentralized, p2p manufacturing as a future alternative to large-scale industrial production.
What are in your opinion the implications of these changes in term of equity, new opportunities, transformation of labor relations or even for the overall sustainability of production and consumption of goods?

[Catarina Mota] My personal take on this is that we’re not uprooting a system and replacing it with an entirely new one. That would have devastating economic and social consequences as history has shown. We’re simply proposing and exploring an alternative. And we’re doing this the way makers/hackers do everything: by executing it and thus showing a proof of concept that can be expanded. It used to be really hard to argue that open source businesses are viable, but now we have so many examples of successful companies that we don’t need to argue anymore. All we have to do is point at these real-life examples.

You speak of an alternative to mass production and in my opinion alternative is the keyword. We’re not abolishing the old system, we’re making it better. We’ll still need mass production for many things, such as nuts and bolts, that are standard and required in large quantities. What I hope we’ll see is an emerging ecosystem in which both large and small producers will be highly networked, with information flowing across many nodes.

There will be more opportunities for small producers to arise and subsist. Though, as Limor Fried once pointed out, it’s important to realize that the skills involved in designing and making good hardware are not the same skills required to successfully run a manufacturing business. Meaning: being able to design and make a good prototype is not a guarantee of commercial success. We’ve seen this over and over again in kickstarter campaigns, for example, in which the creators had a brilliant idea for a product, made a working prototype, raised the money to produce it, but then run into all sorts of problems when trying to manufacture and distribute it. Economies of scale are still in place, 3D printing hasn’t replaced injection molding and may never do so. Also, as businesses become more successful, demand also increases so no matter how enthusiastic a group of people may be, they will not be able to make each and every item themselves. Therefore, lowering the barriers to entry will allow more small businesses to emerge, but we shouldn’t expect all of them to succeed. The key here is to know your market and what you can do so you can determine in which area of the ecosystem you can participate. The up side is that the cost of failure is also decreasing, so if your business fails you can probably start afresh.

As for environmental sustainability, I think we’re at a crossroads here. The ease with which we can now make things could either be a disaster or the best thing ever. On the one hand, this can lead us to think of objects as disposable (we can just make a new one if we don’t like what we currently have). On the other hand, as Morton, Mochon and Ariely describe in the IKEA Effect, we may develop special relationships with the things we make/assemble ourselves which will make us more likely to want to repair them when they break. If this happens, the life cycle of products will be extended. And, of course, it goes without saying, that making or assembling things locally will also play an important part in terms of environmental sustainability, specially if it uses as many locally available materials as possible.

(Ed: Extended insights on Hacking, Digital Fabrication and Production can be found on Last year article Catarina wrote with Tom Igoe: http://www.strategy-business.com/media/file/sb64_11307.pdf)

Image Credits: Catarina Mota 12, 3 (CC BY-SA-NC 2.0)

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Intervista a Catarina Mota: Ecco Perché abbiamo bisogno di Materiali Aperti, Versatili e Modificabili ora.

Catarina Mota è, senza dubbio, tra i più eminenti rappresentanti del movimento Hacker. Per me, è estremamente impressionante vedere come uno dei leader di questa rivoluzione sia arrivato da fuori del mondo tecnologico e abbia in realtà una un background di Scienza della Comunicazione e Cinema. Quando le ho chiesto di dirmi un breve riassunto della sua esperienza di hacker, Catarina mi raccontato una storia precisa e dettagliata che lascia molti spunti.

I primi contatti con l’elettronica e la programmazione risalgono al 1998 quando Catarina era studente all’ITP-NYU:

“all’ITP insgnavano agli studenti come iniziare, ma la maggior parte dello sviluppo vero e proprio aveva luogo dopo le lezioni quando gli studenti si riunivano con insegnanti e compagni per capire insieme come fare le cose. Al momento, non lo chiamavamo open source hardware, ma schemi e codice erano liberamente condivisi”

Esattamente questo contribuì a far si che Catarina e altri come lei, che non avevano alcuna formazione tecnica, impararono comunque presto come iniziare a fare. Dopo la laurea all’ITP Catarina rinunciò per un po’ all’hardware dato che al momento non c’erano hackerspaces o techshops, e molte persone a New York e Lisbona non hanno neanchè un garage:

“Oltre alla mancanza di spazio fisico , un altro problema era l’accesso ai componenti e materiali. Potevo acquistari, naturalmente, ma era difficile per una persona sola a rifornirsi di ogni componente elettronico e materiale di cui avesse bisogno. Era molto frustrante, al lavoro su un progetto, accorgersi di non avere la resistenza giusta e aspettare diversi giorni per un singolo componente, così da poter continuare”

Per alcuni anni coì Catarina ha rivolto la sua attenzione a software e dati fino a quando, dopo anni di ricerca, nel 2008 ha ottenuto un dottorato di ricerca nei media digitali. Da quattro anni dunque ricerca l’impatto sociale della convergenza di hardware open source, strumenti di digital fabrication e hackerspaces.

Nel 2009 Catarina ha deciso di avviare un Hackerspace a Lisbona per poter lavorare con gli altri invece che da sola e ha incontrato due persone straordinarie che hanno aderito con entusiasmo allo sforzo: Ricardo Lobo (dall’ hackerspace di Porto) e Tiago Henriques: invece che creare una organizzazione completamente separata i tre hanno congiunto gli sforzi e dato vita all’ altLab a Lisbona. Pochi mesi dopo anche un terzo hackerspace si è unito all’organizzazione: XDA. I tre ora formano la rete di AZ Labs.
Un anno dopo, quando Catarina si trasferisce di nuovo a New York si unisce a NYC Resistor (uno dei più antichi Hackerspace negli Stati Uniti).

Nel 2009, l’incontro con Kirsty Boyle, un artista robot che Catarina ha incontrato in una mostra a Madrid, ha ispirato una collaborazione su una installazione che ha richiesto diversi tipi di materiali intelligenti, come materiali a memoria di forma e vernici fotocromatiche:

“Non appena abbiamo iniziato la ricerca abbiamo capito i materiali intelligenti erano estremamente difficili da ottenere in piccole quantità, e quei pochi che avevamo potuto ottenere non avevano istruzioni di sorta. Siamo andate avanti per tentativi ed errori. Essendo sostenitori dell’open source però, abbiamo subito capito che dovevamo condividere queste informazioni in modo che altri non avrebbero avuto gli stessi problemi, anche nella speranza di ricevere aiuto per creare un pool di conoscenza pubblica intorno ai materiali. Così abbiamo creato openmaterials.org

Quando ho chiesto a Catarina di OSHWA, lei mi ha raccontato il progetto dall’inizio:

“Nei primi anni 2000, l’hardware open source era qualcosa che la gente, semplicemente, faceva. Questi pionieri erano per la maggior parte utenti o sviluppatori di software open source, per cui trovarono naturale ilcondividere gli schemi del loro hardware.

Negli anni successivi la pratica è cresciuta ad un ritmo incalzante, con una miriade di nuovi progetti. Ma all’inizio del 2010, anche se la comunità era molto attiva in rete e si incontrava di persona in occasione di eventi come la Maker Faire, abbiamo cominciato a renderci conto che avevamo bisogno di formalizzare le cose un po ‘più”

In quel momento, Ayah Bdeir – Creative Commons fellow – stava cercando di far decollare Littlebits. Volendo condividere le informazioni che stava raccogliendo, organizzò un workshop per gli sviluppatori di hardware aperto al fine di discutere come gestire il lato giuridico:
“Da questo incontro emerse la prima definizione di hardware open source, che fu poi perfezionata con il contributo della comunità internazionale. Nei primi mesi del 2010, Alicia Gibb iniziò a lavorare sul primo Open Hardware Summit. Lei e Ayah hanno unito le forze e poco dopo, nel mese di settembre dello stesso anno, ha avuto luogo il primo summit.

“Da quel momento in poi il movimento ha avuto sia una definizione che consentissedi determinare se qualcosa è hardware open source o meno, che un luogo di incontro annuale per discutere i progressi e le sfide”.

Secondo Catarina:

“Sembrava logico che il prossimo passo sarebbe stato quello di creare una organizzazione non-profit per ospitare il summit, lavorare sulla definizione, definire le best practice ed educare il grande pubblico sull’hardware open source. Alicia coraggiosamente ha si assunse questo compito e cominciò a mettere insieme tutta la documentazione necessaria”

Catarina co-presiede l’Open Hardware Summit ed è entrata nel consiglio di Open Source Hardware Association (OSHWA), fondata a Giugno.

“Stiamo ancora navigando nell’enorme quantità di documenti che una nuova organizzazione richiede, ma alcuni dei nostri primi progetti sono il Summit del 2012, il primo survey sull’open hardware di rilievo internazionale e una piccola sorpresa da definire (si spera) al vertice nel settembre”

Seguono le domande più specifiche su Openmaterials, su cui ho avuto modo di dibattere più dettagliatamente con Catarina.

[SimoneCicero] Quali sanno le implicazioni del portare lo studio di nuovi materiali fuori dai centri di ricerca: quanto il mondo DIY è pronto a creare nuovi materiali e generare nuova innovazione? Che tipo di materiali prevedi che la gente inventarà o modificherà? sulla base di quali necessità? In che senso renderanno questi materiali più intelligenti?

[Catarina Mota] Le implicazioni del portare i materiali al di fuori dei centri di ricerca saranno simili a ciò che si è già visto con l’hardware. Vedremo hacking, nuove applicazioni e forse anche nuovi materiali. Tutto dipende dalla massa critica. Gli scienziati dei materiali hanno il know-how e gli strumenti, e stanno creando incredibili nuovi materiali, ma una volta che si mette che la conoscenza e gli strumenti nelle mani di un gran numero di persone vedremo cose a cui un gruppo più ristretto di innovatori, probabilmente non penserebbe.

Stiamo ancora muovendo i primi passi verso i materiali open source e non abbiamo ancora la massa critica. Ma i nostri strumenti sono sempre più sofisticati e c’è sempre più conoscenza e sperimentazione là fuori. Così, anche se non siamo ancora pronti a creare nuovi materiali e mettere a punto importanti innovazioni, stiamo aprendo la strada perché ciò avvenga.

Penso che inizieremo con due tipi di materiali – che in realtà già abbiamo:

  • Semplici materiali intelligenti quali l’inchiostro conduttivo, che non richiedono una conoscenza approfondita della chimica, né costose attrezzature. All’inizio di quest’anno, Jordan Bunker è stato in grado di riprodurre un metodo per fare inchiostro conduttivo che aveva letto in un documento di ricerca di due scienziati dei materiali da UIUC, nel suo hackerspace. Un paio di mesi dopo, Nick Vermeer dal NYC Resistor, anche egli sulla base di un aricolo di ricerca, ha creato un inchiostro conduttivo DIY.
  • Materiali per la stampa 3D: le stampanti 3D diventano sempre più popolari, sempre più attenzione viene rivolta ai materiali utilizzati. Non abbiamo ancora visto traguardi importanti, ma ci sono già alcuni progetti incentrati sulla creazione di riciclatori e generatori di filo, come Filabot. Mi aspetto che, oltre ad esperimenti con ABS e PLA, vedremo anche una certa azione nello sviluppo di UV (resine costose per ora), nonché in nuovi materiali per il taglio laser e per la fresatura.

Le necessità e lacune che questi materiali risolveranno saranno l’accesso a materiali migliori e più economici per fare le cose che stiamo già facendo: creare circuiti e fabbricare oggetti.

Come Eric von Hippel suggerisce, gli utenti sanno esattamente cosa vogliono e quindi sono particolarmente ben posizionati per progettarlo e prototiparlo. Dunque i materiali che creeremo sono quelli che ci servono per fare le cose di cui abbiamo bisogno. Così i materiali diventeranno più smart, nel senso che saranno meglio adattabili alle nostre esigenze specifiche.

[Simone Cicero] Esiste per i materiali aperti una reale opportunità di business per creare aziende e attività produttive attorno a un quadro di ricerca condivisa e collaborativa, come è successo per l’open source o open hardware finora?

[Catarina Mota] Io credo di sì. L’hardware open source e i movimenti maker si espandono, e così fa il nostro bisogno di materiali. La maggior parte dei produttori di materie prime non lo capisce ed è completamente concentrato sulla fornitura alle grandi imprese manifatturiere e pochi rendono i loro prodotti disponibili in piccole quantità. Ci sono dunque opportunità di business non sfruttate sicuramente in quest’ambito, specialmente per ciò che concerne i materiali per la fabbricazione digitale.

[SimoneCicero] Nel valutare le implicazioni del decentramento, i materiali sono fondamentali. Nel creare una nuova struttura decentrata della produzione, quali sono le implicazioni trasversali tra design e materiali? Da un lato, la progettazione deve cercare nuovi modi per creare prodotti e imparare a essere invariante dai materiali in qualche modo – altrimenti sarà difficile collaborare globalmente su una vera e propria biblioteca globale di “productibles” – ma d’altra parte dobbiamo inventare materiali che siano aperti, hackable, versatili (per evitare di limitare troppo il processo di progettazione e creazione).

[Catarina Mota] Non vedo il problema a patto che ci sia una buona documentazione. Allo stesso modo con cui identifichiamo le parti nelle Bill of Materials, specificando il numero dei componenti e i loro collegamenti tramite le specifiche, possiamo fare qualcosa di simile per i materiali. Per esempio, ci sono diversi tipi di vernici termocromiche ora disponibili, che vengono attivate ​​a temperature diverse, se abbiamo questa informazione possiamo selezionare quello che ci serve. La stessa cosa vale per altri materiali: se si pubblicano ricette per un materiale e anche una chiara spiegazione delle proprietà che ne derivano, la gente saprà scegliere quale ricetta per la loro applicazione. Non è poi così diverso da com funziona l’hardware open source , è tutta una questione di documentazione.

[Simone Cicero] Oltre al mondo del design, che è storicamente spesso in anticipo su tali innovazioni – che settore produttivo pensi dovrebbe sviluppare un interesse per i materiali aperti, anche se non l’ha fatto finora? In generale, quali sono le aree applicative in cui abbiamo più bisogno di creare nuovi materiali?
Ancora, quali sono gli assi più importanti e interessanti di innovazione (per esempio la versatilità della sostenibilità, il riciclo, la longevità) per i materiali?

[Catarina Mota] Come già detto in parte, penso che l’area in cui al momento abbiamo più bisogno di innovazione sia  la ricerca sui materiali per fabbricazione digitale. Abbiamo accesso all’hardware e dunque il nostro bisogno di materiali meno costosi e più sostenibili è in aumento. Dobbiamo trovare una soluzione urgente dal momento che stiamo facendo più cose e più che mai dobbiamo iniziare a pensare modi per riciclare stampe fallite e avanzi.

Un altro settore che ha avuto una certa attenzione, ma non abbastanza, sono i biomateriali, alcune dei quali essitono da tempo se non da sempre. Sto pensando ad esempio al cartone, al sughero e alla bioplastica. Credo che un sacco di novità siano in attesa di accadere e non solo riguardo la creazione di nuovi materiali, ma anche riguardo il trovare nuovi utilizzi per i materiali tradizionali. Io vivo a New York e ogni settimana abbiamo generiamo tonnellate di cartone da riciclare. Il riciclaggio richiede ancora non banale consumo di energia. Così ogni volta che vedo questi cumuli di cartone per strada mi chiedo: perché non possiamo riutilizzarli a livello locale per costruire mobili, mattoni, fioriere, ecc? Un altro materiale davvero sorprendente è il sughero: è rinnovabile, isolante e di lunga durata. Perché non lo usiamo più?

Un altro aspetto interessante è la longevità dei materiali. Alcuni materiali per esempio tendono ad andare male dopo un po’, soprattutto durante l’estate quando fa molto caldo. Il mio stock di vernice magnetica, per esempio, si prosciugava costantemente. Ora che ho creato la mia formula, posso solo farne qualsiasi quantità quando ne ho bisogno. Ho anche iniziato a conservare i colori termocromici sotto forma di pigmenti. In questo modo devo solo fare la vernice quando sto per usarli. Questo mi permette anche di fare diversi tipi di vernice da un singolo lotto di pigmenti: acrilico, olio, serigrafia, tessuto, ecc C’è molto meno spreco e molta più flessibilità.

[Simone Cicero] Spesso ci appelliamo alle implicazioni sociali della rivoluzione Open & P2P. Dal momento che questo paradigma sta avendo visibilità – perché ora riguarda la produzione di hardware, gli oggetti tangibili – e la Maker (e hacker) culture è sempre più in vista – abbiamo finalmente iniziato a mettere in discussione la produzione digitale, decentrata, p2p come alternativa futura alla grande produzione industriale.
Quali sono secondo te le implicazioni di questi cambiamenti in termini di equità, nuove opportunità, di trasformazione dei rapporti di lavoro o anche riguardo la sostenibilità complessiva della produzione e del consumo delle merci?

[Catarina Mota] La mia opinione personale è che non stiamo sradicando un sistema e per sostituirlo con uno completamente nuovo. Ciò avrebbe devastanti conseguenze economiche e sociali, come la storia ha dimostrato. Stiamo semplicemente proponendo ed esplorando un’alternativa. Lo stiamo facendo come gli hacker fanno tutto il resto: mostrando una prova che può funzionare. Una volta era davvero difficile sostenere che le imprese open source sarebbero state sostenibili e vitali, ora abbiamo tanti esempi di aziende di successo che non abbiamo più bisogno di discuterne. Tutto ciò che dobbiamo fare è dare esempi tangibili di vita reale.

Tu parli di una alternativa alla produzione di massa e, a mio parere alternativa è la parola chiave. Non stiamo abolendo il vecchio sistema, stiamo facendo meglio. Avremo ancora bisogno della produzione di massa per molte cose, come dadi e bulloni, che sono standard e richiesti in grandi quantità. Quello che spero vedremo però è un ecosistema emergente in cui i produttori, grandi e piccoli, saranno in rete e si scambieranno un flusso di informazioni che regolerà i molti nodi.

Ci saranno più opportunità per i piccoli produttori di sorgere e sussistere. Anche se, come Limor Fried, una volta ha sottolineato, è importante rendersi conto che le competenze coinvolte nella progettazione e realizzazione hardware non sono le stesse competenze necessarie per gestire con successo una attività produttiva.

Essere in grado di progettare e realizzare un prototipo non è una buona garanzia di successo commerciale. Abbiamo visto più e più volte campagne di Kickstarter, ad esempio, in cui i creatori hanno avuto una brillante idea per un prodotto, realizzato un prototipo funzionante, raccolto i fondi per produrlo, per poi incorrere in problemi di ogni genere nel produrre e nel distribuire.

L’economia di scala è ancora lì al suo posto, la stampa 3D non ha sostituito l’injection molding e non potrà mai farlo. Inoltre, le imprese diventano più successo, la domanda aumenta e non importa quanto entusiasmo un gruppo di persone può avere, non saranno in grado di produrre ogni cosa. Pertanto, l’abbassamento delle barriere all’entrata consentirà alle imprese più piccole ad emergere, ma non dobbiamo aspettarci che tutte abbiano successo. La chiave qui è conoscere il proprio mercato e cosa si può fare, in modo da poter determinare il proprio ruolo nell’ecosistema. Il costo del fallimento è in diminuzione, quindi se la vostra azienda non sarà fortunata, sarà probabilmente possibile ricominciare da capo.

Per quanto riguarda la sostenibilità ambientale, penso che siamo a un bivio. La facilità con cui possiamo fare le cose ora potrebbe essere un disastro o la cosa migliore di sempre. Da un lato, questo può portarci a pensare gli oggetti come usa e getta (possiamo farne uno nuovo se non ci piace più quello che abbiamo). D’altra parte, come Morton, Mochon e Ariely descrivono c’è una sorta di effetto IKEA, sviluppiamo rapporti speciali con le cose che facciamo o ci assembliamo da noi, e questo rende più desiderabile ripararli quando si rompono. Se questo accadrà, il ciclo di vita dei prodotti sarà esteso. E, naturalmente, va da sé, che fare o assemblare le cose a livello locale avrà un ruolo importante in termini di sostenibilità ambientale, specialmente se si usano il più possibile materiali disponibili localmente.

(Ed:.Approfondimenti estesi su Hacking, Digital Fabrication e strategia  si possono trovare sull’articolo che l’anno scorso Catarina ha scritto con Tom Igoe: http://www.strategy-business.com/media/file/sb64_11307.pdf)

Image Credits: Catarina Mota 12, 3 (CC BY-SA-NC 2.0)

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About meedabyte

Strategist, Consultant and Collaborative Pathfinder


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